Event Started: 7/23/2014 3:00:00 PM

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Good afternoon everybody. Welcome to the session of the Agrability weather series. My name is Paul Jones I'm the manager of the national Agrability project it is headquartered at Purdue University. Today's topic is increasing visual accessibility on agricultural machinery. Before we get started, just a few quick what our instructions.

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Agrability -- were sponsored by the US Department of agriculture. We assist farmers ranchers and other agricultural workers with disabilities. It could be a spinal cord injury, invitations, arthritis, etc. etc. Every Agrability project is a partnership between [ Indiscernible ] University and one nonprofit organization. There is one national project that assist the other projects around the country. Our project at Purdue partners currently with goodwill of the finger Lakes the arthritis foundation heartland region, the University of Illinois and Colorado State University. Feel free to check out more about Agrability at our website.

I will turn things over to our presenters. Sean will give us the presentation and return at the end for our poll questions. Sean will not be using a camera to broadcast during the presentation itself. It's not a technical issue if you do not see him.

Thank you for the introduction. Welcome to our webinar this afternoon. My name is Sean and I may doctoral student here at Purdue University in the Department of agricultural and biological engineering. My topic of research is assessing visibility viewing technology on agricultural equipment.

My research primarily focuses on the re--- visibility of equipment that is what we will talk about in this presentation. For an outline, we have four basic topics in this presentation. First, what is assistive viewing technology?

Changes in agricultural equipment design over the years

Advances in viewing technology

Lastly, an assessment of agricultural equipment visibility.

Here we have to trackers that we will be comparing. On the left is a tractor from the Midshipman 1980s. On the right, is a current production tractor. So first thing we need to discuss would be what is visibility or assistive visibility? We talk about this, were discussing any instrument that aids in the observation of an individual surrounding area. In this does this can be through ergonomic equipment design mirrors, cameras, etc. Anything like that. Individually and collectively working together to improve visibility and minimize blind spots. The first thing only talk about visibility would be lighting. Lighting is a big topic. In the US, 58 is ever eight -- average age of the former in the United States. At this age, a person's eyes can only receive about 40% of the light that we could we were 20 years old. We need to increase the amount of lighting that we can provide to the operator to have a safe surrounding. 360° exterior lighting is common on today's production tractors. Typically we used to use halogen lighting like on the tractor here on the left the older series. And these lights lasted about 2000 hours. Today, our current production tractors we have different options of lighting. First, would be seen on lights. These lights have 10 times the life of a halogen. They consume about 35% less power. Another option when discussing lighting on modern tractors would be LED lighting. LEDs have about 44 times the life span of an original halogen light they consume about 57% less power.

We have 57% less power from an LED light. We need to notice the position of lights when we discuss lighting on agricultural equipment. Lights positioned in direct line of the operator's line of sight create maximum illumination of dust particles. That's why when you look at tractors both the old and the new series tractors here on the bottom of the page, this is why you see the lights on the top of the And below at the front of the tractor and on the top of the fenders. You notice there are no lights at the same parallel or same site plane as the operators eyes. This is to reduce the elimination of dust particles.

Next thing we will discuss would be the positioning of components such as air intake and exhaust location. We notice on the tractor on the left in the mid-80s that the exhaust and air intake are just off-center in front of the operator forward view. These positions can be quite distracting and impair forward visibility. In modern tractors have changed this significantly. They have completely removed the external location of the air intake and they have moved the exhaust location to coincide with the front corner pillar of the. You always have a corner pillar is just unavoidable due to the rollover protection system. It's best for designers to make use of this obstruction to coincide that with the exhaust location that is what they have done. The next thing we will discuss will be the design. Designs have changed significantly over the years. I like to call attention to the type of windscreen or the glass so notice on the current reduction tractor the tractor on the right, has large unobstructed glass panels. This allows great visibility the operator does not have individual pains as you see on the tractor on the left, the windows are smaller and are boxed out framed, by just the design of the. What happens when we have obstruction that are parallel to the eye plane, so any type of framing around the window or just any obstruction parallel to the eye plane we create the maximum intrusiveness visibility for the operator. And next we have good design. So you notice on the tractor on the left, that the put his flat and short and stubby whereas the newer model tractors have a long sloping hood that tapers as it approaches the Of the operator. What this does it allows the operator to have a better visual observation area behind the tires and next to the body of the tractor. This also allows for a tighter turning radius for the tractor in general. The last comparison I would like to make the team used to tractors would be the mirrors. Notice that the tractor on the left does not have any external it's -- extended mirrors it's just equipped with an internal mirror whereas the tractor on the right has external mirrors. The extended arm mirrors allow the operator to see out and around. He's mirrors are not always standard option on many current production tractors even today. But they are quite common on row crop tractors that we mainly encounter. I would like to mention a little bit more about these mirrors so we will discuss them in a few slides for now.

Before that, let's talk about some interior visibility improvements. So first, we have ergonomic control positioning. The red circle at the bottom this is the control arm or command arm as John. Refers to this. And what this does it anchors the position of all the controls on the right-hand arm of the seat. The seats in these modern tractors to rotate up to 40 degrees which I will discuss shortly. What this does by anchoring it to the motion of the seat is the operator does not lose an anchor point or orientation with controls while moving around in the tractor.

Next we have a readable and understandable instrumentation. Older tractor used to use an analog gauge or analog gauges to display all the different characteristics or operation parameters that is going on with the tractor. Modern agricultural equipment has gone to LCD panels and touchscreen displays. These can be slightly overwhelming to some operators. But they do have some benefits and allowing the operator to focus in on certain parameters. Yet the opponent that isn't so say a planner or sprayer or any other type of operation that they can all be tuned in and read all the diagnostic material data off of the opponent. They have a lot of us to observe a lot of data that is coming in from both our tractor and our implement.

Entry and exit visibility. This goes back a little bit to the cab design. Remember on the's previous slide we look at the older series tractor and how the door was sectioned off in different panels of glass. This tractor the modern tractor here, has a very large and unobstructed door. What this does is allow the operator to be aware of their surroundings and allows them to be aware of any individual that is approaching the vehicle. If there is a farmhand or a helper that's coming to the field to tell the operator something, we have better visibility of that person as a approach the vehicle.

There we have interior and exterior mirrors. There are many different types of mirrors and we will discuss them shortly. You can see the exterior extended arm mirrors are positioned out and away from the cab and they allow for just a wider field of view and they assist the operator in field operations.

Last thing on this page would be the redesign forward view the hood like I mentioned in the previous slide is now a more tapered design and you can see in the picture that it does not create a huge visual impairment when you look forward. From the operators view, the steering wheel covers most of the hood. They have significantly improved forward visibility and that's where a lot of the design attention has been focused so take notes on that and as we focus here in this presentation more they rear visibility of equipment.

Continuing with interior visibility, notice the top left picture that has a diagram of a human head and what this is showing is the average direction or how many degrees of angle a person can turn their head the average human can turn their head about 60 to 80 degrees in either direction. When talking about operators with any impairment, to the range of motion, they would require some sort of assisted device such as mirrors or cameras to obtain a safe awareness of their surroundings. Moving over, the operator that is sitting in the seat that is a 40° rotating seats. It has the command arm also. As a couple of things to discuss when looking at this picture. When the command arm what that does is it allows the controls to move with the seat in the operator to maintain an anchored orientation in full range of motion of the seat. This can lead to improved reaction time, and also allows the operator to always have a fixed anchored spot to adjust speed or adjust any parameter of the implement Intel. It used to be that we could not rotate seats as much as we can now. Case and John Deere, they now rotate their seats to the right up to 40 degrees. What happened when we rotate the seats too far in the past is the operator would lose contact with the clutch and brake pedals and this would be dangerous for field operations. The operator would not have full control if they needed to make an abrupt stop or any type of reaction like that if the operator loses orientation with the clutch and breaks. On modern tractors, we now have transmissions which is infinitely variable and that is controlled by a joystick. Case has a multi-punch and handle so depending on the brand it's a little different labeling. But they both basically do the same thing and what it does it controls the forward and reverse direction and speed of the tractor. So notice the little orange knob in the operators right-hand on the picture in the top right. This is the control for the IVT transmission. Like I said, the operator does not have to have full contact with the clutch and brake like they used to. On older series tractors -- in order to stop or change gears or any type of speed change in any type of field operations. They can adjust the joystick to adapt to any parameter that they need to adjust to. That is very useful on modern tractors and that is why they can allow the seats to adjust so far in that 40° rotation. What is very important about this rotating seat is that it allows the operators that might not have the full range of view or full range of rotation of their head to see behind them. By rotating the seat in this 40° to the right, the operator does not have to turn their head quite as far to monitor the implement behind them.

Here we will talk about some available technology dealing with mirrors. Mirrors have had some downside to them in their existence in the agricultural history. The first one we will discuss arm mirrors. As you can see on the combine in the right, these mirrors extent out allowing you to see out and around the implement kind you. Problems in the past have dealt with image distortion through vibration be at from the engine, or the rough terrain in the field, or any type of vibration which can lead to image distortion. Also, they can be prone to breakage due to their location. They are extended out and away from the cab so maybe fields have overhanging tree limbs that can break these mirrors and they do have a breakaway function but they can still be easily broken. Also, tall buildings, Barnes can be hazardous to the mirrors. I would like to talk call attention to the extent are mere in the upper right-hand corner. This mere is unique. This is a case mirror. What this mirror does it has two mirrors in one. So the one casing it has a large mirror on top for rear word visibility, and the lower mirror at the bottom is positioned lower so the operator can actually monitor the area closer to the tractor. That is a very nice function that they have on there. The last problem that has been encountered with the extended arm mirrors deals with the curvature of the mirror. These mirrors are convex allowing for a wide field of view by being a curved surface but this also distorts the image slightly so the operator is not always have a true representation of what is exactly behind them due to slight image distortion.

Next we have an interior mirror. This mere is common on almost all tractors. This mere has some slight curvature to it as well so as to -- there is some distortion. They are excellent in seeing behind the tractor. But the problem is that if a tall implement or say with a grain card for example is behind the tractor these mirrors are virtually useless because they are completely impaired by that tall implement. An example I always like to bring up his when I harvest grain in the fall and I have to transport my grain back to my grain bin, these interior mirrors are completely obstructed I my grain card behind me. And say I am turning left off of a road which is always a big hazard when you have agricultural equipment you are unable to see any cars approach are trying to make a pass until you actually start turning and then sometimes it is too late. So these mirrors are not very good for that. Extend our mirrors help significantly just depending on the size and location how far back that cart is because as we discussed later I will go over some actual recorded data from visual observations of mirrors and cameras. There is a significant blind spot behind these types of importance.

The last thing I would like to mention before moving on his pitching mirror -- one last comment on the interior mirror if you notice a picture on the bottom left the operator seat is in the center and you can also have a severe obstruction from the operator themselves. You're looking back at a mirror at a picture of yourself often times and it obstructs quite a bit of your view because of that. Some manufacturers actually position this mere less than ideal location where the radio or any type of control from the cab actually hangs down from the roof and impairs the full view of this mirror. While being a handy --. Useful mirror, it does have some issues with obstruction.

Hitching . This mere is not quite as common in agricultural equipment but it is very useful so this mere is actually located in the top corner of a cab so the operator can turn and look at this mere and allows them to see the hitching location. We're cooking up to implement or they have and assistant helping them look up to implement this mere is very useful. Especially if they do not have the full range of motion and ability to turn and view hitching area.

Now, have a commercial in this commercial is promoting regulation imposed by the national Highway traffic safety administration. It's promoting new regulations for vehicles under 10,000 pounds to have a backup camera by May 2018. Let's take a look at this video and you'll see how they have been pushing for it in recent times.

We get into our vehicles every day. Check the side rearview mirrors, look back and we are ready to go. But wait. Behind the vehicle are 62 children and not a single one of them can be seen. Please protect their children do not back line. Save the children.

Okay. As you see from the video there has been quite a bit of a push in the auto industry to equip vehicles with camera technology and we have seen some adaption to the agricultural industry as well.

This panel or slide is showing some of the actions that have been made to the Ag industry. We have here is a kit here in the center and LCD display with a camera. This kit in particular is from vision works. It is manufactured specifically for an industrial agricultural application. The camera is quite robust and it's on a magnetic base. What this does it allows operators to move this camera from various in moments that they hope -- they hope to and change from task to task. On the far right and far left pictures we can see position monitors. These monitors are quite -- they are very common in today's agricultural row crop equipment. What we can do with these monitors is tapped in to this LCD display that is currently in our tractors and broadcast this video feed. It is possible to actually input this video input to our existing monitors. I spoke to a representative from vote both case and John deer and older new production tractors and field equipment will have inputs already installed from factory with the option of installing up to two or three video inputs. This technology is growing in the Ag field. It has not had quite the push as the automotive industry however. Which is where a lot of this is being carried over from. Common use that we see in the Ag industry deals with a lot of grain harvesting. Operators will put these cameras on their combines to monitor grain flow and to -- worry sometimes cannot see into these areas. It keeps operators from pouring the grain on the ground if they should overflow a card or a semi trailer. Another location or farmers use these cameras would be in a livestock barn. The operator with a farmer can observe what is going on in his barn if he is waiting for a mother to give birth and you can monitor that from the house instead of having to constantly go out to the barn to check on progress. There are many applications and it just seems to be growing all the time.

This next video shows an operator backing up to a flatbed trailer. This is another application of how we can use these monitors and cameras to assist us with many applications. We have operators that have difficulty in turning their heads and in this case, anytime. Looking up with a pickup truck you have a blind spot directly kind the tailgate and so what is operator has done and have positioned the camera just directly a low pitch and they can first time -- they can make contact with the hitching location without anybody erecting them. -- Directing them

Sometimes it will take several tries to get in the exact spot when you cannot see very well. After this we have one more video. This is to show operator infield. City of application of using this camera and monitor technology. Operators can monitor field operations while maintaining a forward faster. They do not have to turn around all the time to view what is going on equipment monitoring such as hay or silage, another application would be to monitor gauges such as spraying application you can see how many PSI or flow gauges such as [ Indiscernible ] to monitor to see if you have any plug poses or lines. I know when I spray I spend a lot of time looking backwards just to make sure that I do not have issues like that. When you do this, you take your eyes off of their forward direction and you open yourself up to many hazards I doing that. I recently read a paper that looked at how much time and operator views looking behind them. I was reading about availing operation -- mailing this piece of literature that I read reported that operators spend up to 40% of their time looking backwards. What we encounter when we are in these awkward positions such as looking backwards as vibrations and jolts and bumps that you have in the field and they can imposed more abuse to the operator when you are in these awkward positions. Not only do we hurt ourselves by not having a forward view of where were were moving in the field but we can also cause damage to our bodies by being in these awkward positions and monitoring our quitted all the time.

This slide -- I found this advertisement to be interesting. His is a sales add from 1991. What I'm trying to do is convey how technology has decreased in price over time. The cost of all these items on this page in today's dollars is about $5000. The interesting part about this is the function of every item in this ad can be accomplished by a common smartphone that a lot of us carry around with us. It's just amazing how compact and how easily available the technology has advanced. We see the same thing when we discuss camera technology and using that both automotive and agricultural applications.

On this page what we have our kids featured mainly for industrial and agricultural applications. On the top left is a vision works 7 inch monitor with a high resolution camera. Notice that the camera again is on a magnetic base and has LED lights in the surrounding to help with night or lowlight applications. And these are all just things that people can purchase to fit on their equipment. The center one is by Came another very common manufacturer of agricultural cameras. This is a wireless. It allows the operator to put these cameras anywhere they would like on their implement without stringing wires everywhere. Another option to save some money would be to go with a black and white display such as the one pictured in the top right. And we have the color option on the bottom rates. I like to draw your attention to the very bottom left picture and what this has is a camera that is on a special mounting bracket that coincides with the license plate. So with this does you just take your two screws out of your license plate and it allows the operator or anybody to easily attached this camera with her vehicle. Be it a in a farm situation such as a pickup truck or a grain truck or anything like that, you can easily mount these cameras on top of the license plate bracket. This is a wired connection as well as the one above it. There are benefits to having a wired connection. When we go to wireless kits, sometimes we run into difficulty with interference. The signals are cast from these wireless cameras are a radio frequency and we can run into interference anytime you do not have a very clear line of sight between the trans--- the receiver and the transducer. With that being said, wireless things can be extremely useful and that's what this in the center. What this does it turns any wire camera into a wireless camera. All you need to have is a power source in both locations. There are many options for operators to adopt this technology to their operation.

The next slide shows more. These are mainly intended for the automotive industry. They might not be quite as robust as the camera kits that are designated for agriculture industry. As a trade-off, for the robust design that we had on the previous slide, you notice that these are significantly less expensive. Depending on the application or how the operator feels, this might be a perfectly reasonable avenue to take. We can see that we can get 87 inch window mount -- 7 inch for about $78. There is a license plate camera and this is only about $14 these cameras are very good cameras. You have HD display and image so they do have a good image. Downside, they might not be quite as robust but one thing to notice is a are 170° angle. A straight line is 180 degrees. The angle of these cameras can present to the rearview is a very good field of view. Moving around the circle here's another HD camera it's 170 degrees as well. It is $15. We have a wireless kit and lastly just a 7 inch monitor to use any type of camera with on your application. We'll see more of this in the slides to come.

This is my friend, Dave. Dave is a greater -- rancher in southern Indiana. He had a neck injury 20 years ago so he does not have full range of motion in the rotation of his neck he also has poor depth perception due to some vision loss in one eye. Dave and I were talking last fall or last Christmas he was telling me how he is always afraid of backing into something or someone he has frequent visits from his grandchildren. And he uses this you TV quite frequently he checks his horses, he takes the out to areas so he uses it all the time but he's afraid because he cannot see behind him very well. What they did was install some extended our mirrors as you you see beside him and later I came in and installed this backup camera you see here counted on his dashboard. Let's move in a little bit and we can see this backup camera little closer along with the two extended our mirrors that David installed. I would like to bring attention to the extended mirrors on each side. They do a very good job. They are wide and had a very good field of view. But one problem that we have with these mirrors is if you notice they only look down the side of the vehicle they look down the bed of his vehicle on each side. So the area directly behind his vehicle is still kind of a mystery. You have this area is very hazardous. He can back into someone or something and it still not in his area of vision. We installed this camera, we put it directly in the center underneath the tailgate which we will see in the next slide but before we go to that I would like to point out this image inside -- on this picture and what happens is it has a water print overlaid on the image and what this is is a grid system that's built into the camera. Once we installed this we measured it one time and David can commit this to memory, it allows him to reference the distance of an object behind him using this great system. So the farthest line on this system we measured to be about 3 foot away. By knowing that, David is able to back up to things and have a reference of how far he is from that object.

This is where we mounted the camera. As you can see it's a very small camera. It's about the size of a $.50 piece. It's not very large it's completely waterproof as is all of the cameras that I have discussed so far what we did -- it took to screws and we mounted it under those to the under bed of the UTV. It is quite simple to do the next thing we had to do was find a power source. Lucky for us, this Polaris Ranger that we put this on has full-time running tail lights so we had a constant 12 oh supply just a couple of feet away. It's very simple to tie in to those power supplies and the next step all we have to do is to run a single video wire up to our monitor. So it was not very difficult to install. It is very inexpensive for him. The route he chose to go the whole setup was about $45. It was very inexpensive and it was significant we cheaper than what his extended our mirrors cost. They gave him a great view behind his vehicle and he was very happy with the results.

This would be the last part of our presentation. We're going to talk about assessing equipment visibility. To do this I designed this grade with a cell size of 5' x 5 the midpoint of each cell I have a flag that resents the average height of an American man, woman and 10-year-old child. So I had three indicator flags in each cell. They gave us a reference on how tall the person is or the level of visibility we would have behind the vehicle. In this experiment, we positioned a tractor or any type of Ag implement in front of this grid and positioned it at the farthest extruding point such as the hitch in most applications. In the center of this grid does this allowed us to view and compare the visibility of a tractor or any implement compare that to what we have and implement Intel as pictured in the bottom. So first we look at what we could see with the mirrors. We used the extended our mirrors and we used the internal cab mirror and all these mirrors together to see what level of visibility we could achieve from a standard tractor. Then we wanted to compare this to what we could see with the addition of a backup camera or a rearview camera. So we want to compare the results and see how much we could gain out of this in these types of experiments. At exactly what we did.

First we had a combine and notice the flags behind the combine. There are three ribbons on each hole in these ribbons there is an orange, pink, and green ribbon and like I said that represented the average height of a man woman and child. As we see this camera has extended -- this combine has extended our mirrors on it. If you have any experience in agriculture you know that combines are just notorious for horrible rear visibility. You hear about how a former back into a grain card or they backed into a truck or something that was parked behind them that they could not see so it's very common and it's quite expensive when we do that. It can be quite tragic as well. That's mainly what this research is intended for is to cut down on any type of horrible accident like that. By looking at these two grid, these are the 25 foot 25 foot, it shows the results from each mirror. The left extended our mirror had about a 75% obstructed view the same as the right-hand side. You'll notice the red is obstructed view and green is the visibility -- visible area. We had a 75% obstructed view. So basically what this was you could see down the side of the combine but nothing else.

This combine actually had a camera installed on it from factory what John Deere did was they down to the camera quite high on the back of this combine and this caused some obstruction still at the immediate rear area. But it did significantly improve the visible area to just 28% obstructed view as seen in this picture. Notice the purple tiles in the center. That is where a child is not visible. So what this meant is the camera was just able to see the tops of the heads of say a full-grown man or woman but a child was too short to be visible in this location. So by mounting the camera up high, is why we have that obstructed area in that location. There is a reason for mounting a camera that high though, especially on a combine because combines produce quite a dust cloud. And when producing that much dust the camera by raising it is able to move up and above the dust cloud slightly to improve the visibility.

Next, we compared this to a quad track tractor. You can see the grid setup behind the tractor and we once again measured the external mirrors on the right and left hand side and what those -- with this tractor we had a 60% of truck to view on the left him there and a 68% obstructed view on the right-hand mirror. I will say that we tested the camera location in quite a different spots to see what was -- what delivered the most benefit to the operator and increasing the visibility to the rear. This result shows the camera mounted on the PTO shield. Other locations I tried -- you can see in this picture that there's an enlarged bar with the flashes go across the back of the tractor we positioned the camera initially right there to see what the rear visibility was but there was quite an obstruction caused by the three point hitch so had a quick pitch on this implementation so that quick hitch caused quite the obstruction. We moved the camera location to actually the mounting location of the quick pitch not in the area of the fixed location -- not were actually moved. This still delivered an obstructed view from the hitch itself. We found that the best place to mount this camera was actually just above the PTO shield on the tractor. That's about one or two the above the actual drawbar. By doing this we reduced our obstructed area to just 35% down from 68%. So a 35% obstructed view when using a camera. When comparing -- when combining the camera with extended our mirrors so the range of visibility was reduced to the obstructed area of just 24%. I would like to point out that the with of the tractor was only three cells wide. You see these three cells on the right and left hand side, that's actually outside the width of the tractor. An outside -- it's more of a hazardous area. It's not as hazardous as the area directly behind the tractor. But as we get closer -- what we haven't implement behind us this area is hazardous if the implementation that wide but if you notice the area of visibility actually expands as we move further away from the tractor. So the blue arrow is where the tractor is and this is the farthest away that we tested in the area visibility is quite good in these locations.

The last tractor I will discuss today would be this magnum with a 1100 bushel grain card. Whenever you haven't implement like that it causes a huge visibility issue to the rear. What we see here is an 84% obstructed view when using our extended our mirrors on both the left and right hand side. I also tested the interior mirror on this and it was 100% obstructed view you cannot see anything behind the tractor except the front of the cart. By adding this camera we added this camera to the cart and mounted it on the frame on the cross member, and we could reduce the obstructed view from 84% down to 4% obstructed view. That is a huge benefit that we can achieve by using this type of technology especially on implement swear we have such an obstructed view. The one tile that was obstructed could have probably been adjusted out due to a slight adjustment with the camera location or maybe just it wasn't properly tilted just right. I suspect you get this down to 100% full visibility behind this cart.

That concludes my presentation for today. I appreciate your attention and I would like to say a special thanks to Doctor William Field and Dave. They both help me in this research. Also VisualWorks cameras and also these two gentlemen who live to test their Ag equipment. I would be happy to take any questions now.

Thank you for the excellent presentation. Any questions?

The first one asked about your professional affiliation. In terms of your reason for participating today. If you could choose the best one that fits your reason for being here today.[ Pause ] Our next question, it is about the information that was presented today. Can you tell us if you felt the information was valuable and met your expectations? Thank you for your input.

Next question asked about the technology. With the technology used -- was it effective and usable? Thank you.

Our final question -- would you attend another session in this series?

I will turn things back over to Sean and we will attempt to talk with him.

Okay. Let's start off with some questions. How do you deal with dirt on camera lenses and other self-cleaning lenses? Dirt on camera lenses is very similar to dirt on a near. These cameras are waterproof so the operator can wash them off just with a hose or white them off with a rag. They are durable and their waterproof. That is one way to deal with it. I do know that there are some manufacturers that make a camera that has a self-cleaning or wiping lens that when the camera powers up and shuts down it has a lens that automatically closes and opens. It wipes the camera lens.

How much would it cost to add supplemental exterior mirrors to a tractor? This is a wide ranging question. We can get anywhere inexpensive mirrors that can be around 80 or hundred dollars a lot of the new tractors have what is called a motorized mirror or automatic electric mirrors and these are very expensive. They are typically included with packages on the tractor so it depends on the cab package you have a deluxe Cab or standard cab and these packages are equipped with mirrors. As for adding supplemental exterior mirrors to a tractor you would have anywhere from the value package which is about $80 to John Deere or case mirrors that are about $300. They range quite a bit. Same as a camera technology. You can have anywhere from a $15 camera all the way up to a $500 camera.

Can multiple cameras be viewed on a single monitor?

The answer is yes. It depends on the type of display you have but sometimes you can do what is called a split screen so you can have two cameras side-by-side. Another option is called a different input so a lot of these monitors have a little button on the bottom and they already have two inputs you just push that button to cycle between the two inputs. That is a very good question. It depends on your monitor. But those another thing I would like to mention is the topic of image mirroring sometimes there can be some disorientation trying to correct your course of driving by watching your camera inputs or what you see in your monitor. And you can get what's called a mirroring effect when you turn right are not actually going right on your camera display. A lot of manufacturers actually make a mirroring feature so you are actually turning right, you go right on your display.

I had a family member using a backup camera run right into my car because it distorts the view and makes things look further than they really are. What is the solution to that problem?

Cameras because they have a lot of them have a very wide angle lens. You get what's called a fisheye effect that causes things to be distorted similar to having a curved mirror. A solution to this was what I installed on David's UTV. Some cameras have a built-in grid that is a print over the image and its always there. And by using a camera that has a built-in grid the operator once they determine what the grid coincides with so it is different for every application depending on the angle, but once you know that the lines on that grid the for this grid is 3 foot or 5 foot away, the operator always has that reference point. That's something to look into is to always choose a camera with a grid water printed over the image. Had two cameras tolerate salt on roads? They are waterproof so they can be washed off. But typically the mounting hardware is metallic so they are usually power coated or something type of paint on them. But like anything else, salt Kenny Road and he caused some rusting. But as for the lens, the lens is a very durable plastic -- not many will use a glass lens, but they are durable. Similar to maybe the lens on your smart phone they do resist scratches fairly well. But I think the main problem you would have with salt on the roads would be causing any type of corrosion on the mounting hardware.

What about visibility during night operations?

One of the cameras I showed had some LED lights around the camera. That is one option it helps to eliminate -- illuminate the area behind the camera. Another thing a lot of these agricultural equipment tractors have very good lighting on them and they have 360° lights. It likes the area around the tractor fairly well. These cameras pick up lowlight situations very well. I have one on my car and actually just my tail lights or might reverse lights when they -- when I put the car in reverse it likes of the area very well. I have no problem with that. The same is very true for these agricultural applications. It does not take a huge amount of light to see the immediate area. But you will drop off faster like you will not be able to see as far back in lowlight conditions. Immediate area, highest danger zone you have fairly good visibility even in lowlight conditions.

How vulnerable of these cameras to external damage from running into things or other vehicles getting them?

That's one of the very nice things about camera technology. Comparing them to external mirrors how you have hazards such as tree limbs or Barnes or anything like that, they stick out away from the tractor. These cameras are actually protected very well. You have to back into something first for it would hit the camera because it's protected by either the cab with a frame of the tractor or the implement that they are mounted to they're not very prone to being damaged by running into things that's actually the purpose of having a camera to prevent you from backing into things. They're not very prone to actually being damaged in that respect because they are protected by their surroundings.

Okay. I think that's all the questions. I will planet -- hand it back over to pull.

Thank you. That was an excellent presentation. Again we appreciate your participation. Thank you.

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